Hi Students, In this article I’m going to discussion about Class 8th Science Chapter 1 – Crop Production and Management. Content is based on NCERT CBSE Board English Medium.
Definition of Important Terms of Chapter 1 Crop Production and Management
When plants of the same kind are cultivated at one place on a large scale, it is called crop. e.g If we grow a lot of plant of wheat then all commonly known as crop of wheat.
1. Crop production:
Crop production is process of growing crops for various use like food, fiber etc
2. Crop management:
Crop management is group of agricultural practices that are use to manage the crops in such a way that
- crop production can be increased.
- crop can be protected form weeds pests and diseases.
- crop products can be stored and distributed safely.
What is the need of crop production and management ;
Our population is increasing day by day but natural resources like land , water, are limited, in order to provide food for a large population ,regular production and Distribution is necessary in a managed way so that a huge amount of crop can be custiravated from the limited lands.
1.1 Agricultural practices
Growing plants and rearing animals for food ,clothing , milk etc is called agriculture. Agricultural practices are those practice which are used in agriculture to get better agricultural products.
Some agricultural practices are:
- Preparation of soil
- Adding manure and fertilisers
- Protracting from weeds
Types of crops
There are various types of crops: like cereals, vegetables and fruits etc. but on the basis of season crops grow they are divided into two groups.
- Kharif crops
- Rabi crops
1. Kharif crops
The crops which are sown in rainy season are called kharif crop. In India ( June to September ). Example of Kharif crops: paddy, mazie (Makka), soya-bean, groundnut, cotton etc.
2. Rabi crops
The crop grown in the winter season are known as Rabi crops. In India (October to March). Example of Rabi crops: wheat, gram, pea, mustard etc.
Differences between Kharif crops and Rabi crops
- Kharif crops sown in rainy season (June to September), where Rabi crops season is October to March.
- Kharif crops Require large amount of water, where as Rabi crops needs less amount of water.
- Kharif crops also known as monsoon crops where Rabi known as winter crops.
- Examples of Kharif crops are paddy, maize, soya-bean etc, where examples of Rabi Crops are wheat, gram, mustard etc
Crop production and management
Basic practices of crop production:
1. prepration of soil:
It is a first step of growing crops .in this generally soil is turned and loosen .
Activities that prepare soil are ploughing, leveling watering , sometime manure is is also added.
Ploughing:it is the loosening and ot soil, with some lools commenly plough is used for this purpose.
Benitits / Advantages of ploughing
1 Loosened soil allows roots to penetrate easily.
2 It makes soil airy.
3 It Brings nutrient rich soil to the top.
4 Soil fertility is improvel.
Waterins : sometimes soil is to much hard so giving water to field makes ploughing easy.
Levelling : In this process big crumbs of soil are broken down , it is done with the help of leveller.
It means tools that we use in Agricultural implements.
Plough ; This is a tool used for turning and tilling the soil and adding menure.
Hoe; It is a simple tool used for removing weeds weeds and for loosening the soil
Cultivator: IT is modern tool, used for ploughing tracor driven cultivator saves labour and time.
Sowing is the process of planting seeds on prepared soil.
selection of seeds:
Good auality of seeds are are helpul in increasing crop production as they are more immune to diseases and they can produce plants which are healthy , and require less wates and fortiligers.
Most basic method for seperating healthy seeds from damaging ones.
put all seeds into water and left some time , damaged seeds are us wally hollow and float on water and healthy seeds are heavy so they do not float.
Traditional tool for sowing :
A funnel shaped tool is mostiy uses for sowing seeds are filled into funnel and passed down through a pipe with sharp end into soil.
seed drill is modern tool for sowing seed .it ueses a tractor and with the help of it seeds are sown uniformiy at equal distance and depth and seeds get coveret by soil.
Advantages of seed drill
1 sows seeds at equal distanes
2 saves time
3 save labous
4 protect seeds from birds
1.5Adding manure and fertiligers
manure and fertilisers both are those substances which are added to the soil in the form of nutrients for healthy growth of plants.
Manuring : the process of adding manure to soil is called manuring.
Difference b/w fertiliser and manure
|1 Fertilisers are the chemicals which are rich in a particular nutrient||1 Manure is an origanic substancse obtained from the decomposition of the decomposition of plant or animal wastes|
|2 Fertilisers are prepared in factories||2 can be prepared in fields|
|3 do not provide humus||3 provide humus|
|4 rich in nutrient||4 relatively less rich in nurtient|
|5 Exampleurea, ammonium sulphate, NPK( nitrogen, phosphorus, potessium)||5 Examplecow dung|
Crop rotation: The process of growing different crops sequencely on same field is known as crop rotation.
Advantage of crop rotation
1 Increases soil fertility
2 Increases crop production
3 Increases soil nutrients
4 make soil halthy
Advantage of manure over fertilisers
1 It enhance water holding capicity of soil.
2 Make soil porus.
3 Increases friendiy microbes.
4 Do not contain man made chemicals.
5 improves tenture of soil.
Tha suppiy of water to crops at regular intervals is called irrigation.
Need of irrigation
the purpose of irrigalion is to suppiy required amount of water because rainfall is not sufficient everytime and everywhere.
amount of irrigalion varies from crop to crop, soil to soil and season to season.
sources of irrigation
sources of irrigation means sources of water for irrigation,some sourcas are well, tubewells, ponds, lakes, rivers, doms, and canals etc.
Traditional methods of irrigation
1 moal (pully – system)
2 chain pump
modern method of irrigation:
In modern method of irrigation pumps are commonly used for lifting water, Diesel, biogas, electricity and solar energy is used to run pumps.
some modern methods are
1 sprinkler system of irrigation.
2 drip system of irrigation.
1 sprinkler method / sprinkler irrigation:
in this method of irrigation perpendieular pipes with rotation nozzles on top are joined to main pipeline at regular intervals when water comes out from rotating nozzles it gets sprinkled on crop as if it is raining.
Advantages and uses of sprinkler irrigation
1 more useful on uneven land where sufficient water is not available.
2 useful for lown , coffee plantation etc.
3 prevent soil erosion.
4 reduce water use.
5 Increase yield quality and quantity.
2 Drip irrigation :
In this system, water falls drop by drop directly near the roots thats why it is called drip irrigation.
Advantages and uses:
1 Best technique for watering fruit plants.
2 no water is wasted
3 Most suitable technique for the areas where availablity of water is poor.
1.7 Protection from weeds weeds ?
In the field some undesirable plants may grow along with crop, these undesirable plants are called weeds.
The removal of weeds is called weeding .
Why we remone weeds ?
Because weeds compete with the crop plants for water, nutrients, space and light, thus they affact the growth of crop.
even some weeds may be poisonous for animals and humans so theis removal becomes necessary.
Ways to remove weeds
1 Tilling/ploughing before sowing of crops helps in killing and uprooting weeds.
2 manual removal of weeds with the help of a tool known as khurpi.
3 By the use of some weedicides like 2,4,D.
Note : weedicids are the chemical that can kill weeds without harming crops.
The cutting of crop after it is mature is called harvesting. it can be manual or by machine called harvester
The process of seperating grain seeds from the chaff is called threshing.
The old method for seperating grains is called winnowing.
Storage of grain means to store them safe, so that they can be used for long time and can be transported to different areas for storage of crop product it should be ensured that,
1 storage should be moisture free
2 grains are properly dried
3 the place is safe from inseets, rats and microorganisms
1.10 Food from Animals.
many animals provides food to us like milk, eggs, meat ect are provided by diff animals
It is branch of agriculture in whuch different animal are reared for milk, fiber, eggs, honey etc.
Types of it.
1 Dairy farming
2 poultry farming
3 fish farming
4 Bee farming etc.